Abstract

Available data demonstrate that eukariotic genomes are pervasively transcribed. In some cases, transcription involves both filaments (even though not at the same time). Intriguingly, only up to 4% of our genome encodes the proteome, whereas the rest is transcribed in RNA molecules other than mRNA, as microRNA (miRNAs), long non coding RNA (lncRNAs), circular RNA (circRNAs). In many cases, these non coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are supposed to be untranslated. Altogether, it is easy to speculate that these molecules (and the genome regions where their encoding genes map) hide many of the secrets of human BioMedicine (eg, organism development, control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, molecular bases of neoplastic and degenerative diseases): this explains the great interest toward this genome space, which was once deemed dark area and now is an advanced frontier territory, to be explored also through Biotechnology.

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